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Sexual and gender diversity

In this reflectary, you will find key terms on LGBTQI+ recognition and self-identification, multiple expressions of diversity, and stigma and discrimination.

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Icono de una persona de pie con un megáfono en la mano.


Advocacy (Incidencia política) This is the set of actions to influence the decisions and behaviors of decision makers. The goal is to position the causes and interests of a specific group of people or citizens. References: Collado, H. (2015). Incidencia política: concepto, importancia y herramientas.    Photo credit: bearsky23 Have any questions? MODII can help! Send your query

Un banano, cáscaras de banano y medio pomelo.

Biological sex

  Biological sex (Sexo biológico) Biologically defined sex is determined by a person’s reproductive system and their physiognomy. In other words, based on their genetic, hormonal, anatomic, and physiological characteristics. As such, when a person is born they can be: – Woman: with XX chromosomes and a female reproductive system. – Man: with XY chromosomes and a male reproductive system. – Intersex: with a combination of masculine and

El símbolo de un corazón en medio del signo del hombre y el signo de la mujer.


Bisexual (Bisexual) The term bisexual, which is a standard concept globally, was coined in 1892. It is defined as the sexual orientation of a person who feels emotional, sexual, or romantic attraction towards people of both sexes. Bisexual people, known as bi, are not part of the gay or lesbian collective. They have their own sexual orientation. Originally, the word

Primer plano de un hombre con los brazos cruzados en el pecho y rostro compungido. De fondo y fuera de foco, varias personas conversan reunidas alrededor de una mesa.


Bullying  (Acoso escolar, intimidación) The term bullying encompasses all types of violent behaviour, such as threats, exclusion, aggressions, etc., of students towards their peers. This type of behaviour towards the harassed person occurs over time. Sometimes, this harassment and abuse takes place outside of the classroom. When bullying occurs in the workplace, it is known as mobbing.  In the majority

Ilustración de una niña y un niño de pie. Solamente visten pantalones cortos y están mirando qué hay debajo de estos, en la zona de sus genitales.


Cisgender  (Cisgénero) The word cisgender or cis refers to people who identify with the sex or gender they were assigned at birth. The word is used within trans activism in an inclusive way to refer to non-transgender people. Cisgender people do not usually identify themselves as cisgender; this consistency in gender identity is implicit in cis-heteronormativity or cis-homonormativity. The prefix cis etymologically

Dos señales de tránsito redondas. En una de las señales, hay un miembro policial corriendo con un bastón en la mano. En la otra señal, hay una persona corriendo, con el fondo de la bandera arcoíris. Ambas personas corren en la misma dirección, a modo de persecución.


Cisheteronormativity (Cisheteronormatividad) This is the set of ideas, social norms, beliefs, and culture that govern people whose gender identity corresponds to the one assigned at birth, and people who also identify as heterosexual. This type of social construction is considered the only model for sexual-romantic and parental relationships, and it establishes advantages for people who abide by this system. This

Ilustración de hileras de hombres con traje, que cruzan por la senda peatonal. En el centro, hay una mujer con el cabello suelto. Es la única persona que viste con colores.


Cisheteropatriarchy (Cisheteropatriarcado) This is the set of ideas, beliefs, and culture that support the criterion that men are predominant over other genders and other sexual orientations. It also normalizes the nuclear family as the only acceptable family unit. The concept of man in this social construction is identified as heterosexual and cisgender. Any person that is within this concept has a level

Plano medio de Conchita Wurst. Viste un vestido con lentejuelas y lleva el cabello suelto y barba.


Cross-dresser (Transformista) A cross-dresser uses clothing associated with the opposite sex for artistic performances. This word is usually associated with transvestite, although they are different concepts, and understanding the characteristics of each one is necessary. A cross-dresser becomes another person to entertain and perform. That is why they use make-up and dress up. However, once the performance is over, they

Mujer vestida con camisa, tirantes, sombrero y pajarita. Usa bigotes, fuma un cigarrillo y tiene el rostro serio.

Drag king

Drag king (Drag king) Drag king refers to a woman who uses men’s clothing and make-up with comical, satirical, or dramatic intentions for performances. Their intention is not to imitate men, nor do they necessarily have a specific sexual orientation. Drag kings usually represent characters who are hyper-masculine as satire. The term also includes men who decide to perform this

Drag queen en el Desfile del orgullo gay en Torremolinos, España. Lleva un vestido, un abanico y una corona con plumas en la cabeza.

Drag queen

Drag queen  (Drag queen) Drag queen refers to a man who uses women’s clothing and make-up with comical, satirical, or dramatic intentions for performances. Their intention is not to imitate women , nor do they necessarily have a specific sexual orientation. Within the drag culture, there are different typologies, including: comedy queens, who have exaggerated feminine features; pageant queens, who wish

Dos hombres bailan tomados de la mano y sonríen. Sus frentes se están tocando. Usan trajes y una flor en el ojal del saco.


Gay (Gay) Gay is used to refer to men who are emotionally, sexually, and romantically attracted to other men. The origin of this word dates back to the mid 18th century in England. In the 21st century, the meaning changed: the term is used as a self-ascription mechanism to refer to all things related to homosexuality. However, the fight for

Ilustración de una mujer y un hombre parados al mismo nivel sobre las dos bandejas de una balanza.


Gender (Género) Gender refers to a set of social, cultural, psychological, or political characteristics, among others, attributed to a person according to the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender is not a static or innate concept; it is a sociocultural construct that has varied and will continue to do so throughout time. The use of the concept was promoted

Ilustración de paraguas superpuestos con los colores del arcoíris. En el fondo, el cielo.

Gender Alignments and Intersex

Marginalized Orientations, Gender Alignments and Intersex, MOGAI (Géneros, sexualidades y romanticismos divergentes e intersexo, GSRDI) The objective of this term is to describe sexual and gender diversity, as well as marginalized erotic-romantic relationships in the most inclusive way possible. An abbreviated version is Marginalized Orientations, Genders, and Intersex (MOGAI). There is a website called MOGAI Wiki, which looks to create a

Primer plano de la mano de una persona que sostiene un trozo de papel. En el papel, hay tres letras: la efe, la eme y la equis con una marca de verificación al lado.

Gender binarism

Gender binarism, binarism, genderism (Binarismo de género) Gender binarism is a social construct based on the idea that society only has two genders—feminine and masculine—which are assigned at birth. These correspond to the sex assigned at birth. In other words, when a person is born with a female reproductive system, the sex assigned to them is woman, and their gender is expected to

Ilustración de un hombre que se mira al espejo. Al mismo tiempo, la imagen que se refleja en el espejo es la de una mujer.

Gender dysphoria

Gender dysphoria (Disforia de género) Gender dysphoria is the anxiety or discomfort felt by people whose gender identity does not correspond to the sex they were assigned at birth. This anxiety can be a result of their physical body traits or not. However, the pathologizing model used in the health care of transgender people remains precisely because of the use

Un patito de goma en la línea divisoria de un fondo cuyo color es mitad rosa y mitad celeste.

Gender expression

Gender expression (Expresión de género) Gender expression refers to the way that a person uses their personal appearance, expressions, and other gestures to communicate their gender. Gender expression may include any combination of gestures: feminine, when it refers to what is culturally understood as woman; masculine, when the expressions are related to what is culturally known as man; or androgynous,

Una imagen compuesta por dos partes. En una de las mitades hay una joven con aretes y el cabello suelto. En la otra mitad, hay un hombre que lleva traje y usa bigote.

Gender identity

Gender identity (Identidad de género) This is a deep understanding that a person has about whether they feel like a man, woman, neither, or both. This concept attempts to eliminate gender binarism and promote sexual diversity and a satisfactory personal development. Gender identity may or may not be compatible with the sex assigned at birth. For example, trans people do

En una mitad, hay un hombre con guantes y delantal de cocina en un fondo de color rosa. En la otra mitad, hay una mujer con un taladro en un fondo de color celeste.

Gender roles

Gender roles (Roles de género) Gender roles refer to the set of social and behavioural norms assigned to the men and women of a specific group or social system. For example, men have traditionally been assigned the role of breadwinners, as specified by cisheteropatriarchy. On the other hand, a gender role traditionally assigned to women is that of a homemakers. These

Imagen tomada desde arriba de una mujer y un hombre. La mujer lleva guantes y tiene elementos de limpieza y de cocina. El hombre tiene un computador, documentos, un teléfono celular y un reloj.

Gender stereotype

Gender stereotype (Estereotipo de género) This is a generalized and simplistic view or opinion of the specific characteristics that a person has or should have based on their sex. Also, of the role that men or women assume or should assume. These are harmful when they are used to justify discrimination and when they privilege some people and subordinate others.

Ilustración del rostro de una mujer de frente. A su lado, está la silueta de perfil de un hombre con el dedo cerca de la boca, con el gesto de hacer silencio.

Gender-based violence

Gender-based violence (Violencia de género) This refers to violence on another person due to their gender or gender identity. It is based on the deep-rooted inequality between genders. Although any person can experience gender-based violence, it affects women and girls disproportionately. As a result, violence against women or gender-based violence against women are often used interchangeably.  Certain groups are particularly