Advocacy (Incidencia política) This is the set of actions to influence the decisions and behaviors of decision makers. The goal is to position the causes and interests of a specific group of people or citizens. References: Collado, H. (2015). Incidencia política: concepto, importancia y herramientas. Photo credit: bearsky23 Have any questions? MODII can help! Send your query
Sexual and gender diversity
In this reflectary, you will find key terms on LGBTQI+ recognition and self-identification, multiple expressions of diversity, and stigma and discrimination.
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Asexual, ace (Asexual) Asexuality is a term that defines people who feel little or no sexual attraction to others. Anyone, regardless of their sex, age, ethnicity, social condition, or religion, can feel asexual. Being asexual has nothing to do with being antisexual. An asexual person has the same emotional needs that others do. Asexual people can form intimate relationships, fall
Biological sex (Sexo biológico) Biologically defined sex is determined by a person’s reproductive system and their physiognomy. In other words, based on their genetic, hormonal, anatomic, and physiological characteristics. As such, when a person is born they can be: – Woman: with XX chromosomes and a female reproductive system. – Man: with XY chromosomes and a male reproductive system. – Intersex: with a combination of masculine and
Bisexual (Bisexual) The term bisexual, which is a standard concept globally, was coined in 1892. It is defined as the sexual orientation of a person who feels emotional, sexual, or romantic attraction towards people of both sexes. Bisexual people, known as bi, are not part of the gay or lesbian collective. They have their own sexual orientation. Originally, the word
Bullying (Acoso escolar, intimidación) The term bullying encompasses all types of violent behaviour, such as threats, exclusion, aggressions, etc., of students towards their peers. This type of behaviour towards the harassed person occurs over time. Sometimes, this harassment and abuse takes place outside of the classroom. When bullying occurs in the workplace, it is known as mobbing. In the majority
Cisgender (Cisgénero) The word cisgender or cis refers to people who identify with the sex or gender they were assigned at birth. The word is used within trans activism in an inclusive way to refer to non-transgender people. Cisgender people do not usually identify themselves as cisgender; this consistency in gender identity is implicit in cis-heteronormativity or cis-homonormativity. The prefix cis etymologically
Cisheteronormativity (Cisheteronormatividad) This is the set of ideas, social norms, beliefs, and culture that govern people whose gender identity corresponds to the one assigned at birth, and people who also identify as heterosexual. This type of social construction is considered the only model for sexual-romantic and parental relationships, and it establishes advantages for people who abide by this system. This
Cisheteropatriarchy (Cisheteropatriarcado) This is the set of ideas, beliefs, and culture that support the criterion that men are predominant over other genders and other sexual orientations. It also normalizes the nuclear family as the only acceptable family unit. The concept of man in this social construction is identified as heterosexual and cisgender. Any person that is within this concept has a level
Cross-dresser (Transformista) A cross-dresser uses clothing associated with the opposite sex for artistic performances. This word is usually associated with transvestite, although they are different concepts, and understanding the characteristics of each one is necessary. A cross-dresser becomes another person to entertain and perform. That is why they use make-up and dress up. However, once the performance is over, they
Drag king (Drag king) Drag king refers to a woman who uses men’s clothing and make-up with comical, satirical, or dramatic intentions for performances. Their intention is not to imitate men, nor do they necessarily have a specific sexual orientation. Drag kings usually represent characters who are hyper-masculine as satire. The term also includes men who decide to perform this
Drag queen (Drag queen) Drag queen refers to a man who uses women’s clothing and make-up with comical, satirical, or dramatic intentions for performances. Their intention is not to imitate women , nor do they necessarily have a specific sexual orientation. Within the drag culture, there are different typologies, including: comedy queens, who have exaggerated feminine features; pageant queens, who wish
Gay (Gay) Gay is used to refer to men who are emotionally, sexually, and romantically attracted to other men. The origin of this word dates back to the mid 18th century in England. In the 21st century, the meaning changed: the term is used as a self-ascription mechanism to refer to all things related to homosexuality. However, the fight for
Gender (Género) Gender refers to a set of social, cultural, psychological, or political characteristics, among others, attributed to a person according to the sex they were assigned at birth. Gender is not a static or innate concept; it is a sociocultural construct that has varied and will continue to do so throughout time. The use of the concept was promoted
Gender binarism, binarism, genderism (Binarismo de género) Gender binarism is a social construct based on the idea that society only has two genders—feminine and masculine—which are assigned at birth. These correspond to the sex assigned at birth. In other words, when a person is born with a female reproductive system, the sex assigned to them is woman , and their gender is expected to
Gender dysphoria (Disforia de género) Gender dysphoria is the anxiety or discomfort felt by people whose gender identity does not correspond to the sex they were assigned at birth. This anxiety can be a result of their physical body traits or not. However, the pathologizing model used in the health care of transgender people remains precisely because of the use
Gender expression (Expresión de género) Gender expression refers to the way that a person uses their personal appearance, expressions, and other gestures to communicate their gender. Gender expression may include any combination of gestures: feminine, when it refers to what is culturally understood as woman; masculine, when the expressions are related to what is culturally known as man; or androgynous,
Gender identity (Identidad de género) This is a deep understanding that a person has about whether they feel like a man, woman, neither, or both. This concept attempts to eliminate gender binarism and promote sexual diversity and a satisfactory personal development. Gender identity may or may not be compatible with the sex assigned at birth. For example, trans people do
Gender roles (Roles de género) Gender roles refer to the set of social and behavioural norms assigned to the men and women of a specific group or social system. For example, men have traditionally been assigned the role of breadwinners, as specified by cisheteropatriarchy. On the other hand, a gender role traditionally assigned to women is that of a homemakers. These
Gender stereotype (Estereotipo de género) This is a generalized and simplistic view or opinion of the specific characteristics that a person has or should have based on their sex. Also, of the role that men or women assume or should assume. These are harmful when they are used to justify discrimination and when they privilege some people and subordinate others.
Gender-based violence (Violencia de género) This refers to violence on another person due to their gender or gender identity. It is based on the deep-rooted inequality between genders. Although any person can experience gender-based violence, it affects women and girls disproportionately. As a result, violence against women or gender-based violence against women are often used interchangeably. Certain groups are particularly