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Sexual and gender diversity

In this reflectary, you will find key terms on LGBTQI+ recognition and self-identification, multiple expressions of diversity, and stigma and discrimination.

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Ilustración del rostro de una mujer de frente. A su lado, está la silueta de perfil de un hombre con el dedo cerca de la boca, con el gesto de hacer silencio.

Gender-based violence

Gender-based violence (Violencia de género) This refers to violence on another person due to their gender or gender identity. It is based on the deep-rooted inequality between genders. Although any person can experience gender-based violence, it affects women and girls disproportionately. As a result, violence against women or gender-based violence against women are often used interchangeably.  Certain groups are particularly

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Una barra de desplazamiento. De un lado está el signo del hombre y del otro lado está el signo de la mujer.

Genderfluid

Genderfluid (Género fluido) Genderfluid refers to people who have different gender identities at different moments. They can identify as a man or a woman or both at the same time. There is no determined time or length. Feeling like they belong to a gender identity depends on each person and their situation. The most common characteristic of genderfluid people is

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Persona de frente a la cámara. Usa anteojos grandes y un pañuelo en el cuello.

Genderqueer

Genderqueer (Genderqueer) This is a broad term that includes multiple gender expressions and describes any gender identity beyond the binary of man–woman. It is generally associated with the trans community. Genderqueer people can identify with various genders, with neither, or they can go from one gender to another (genderfluid). Being genderqueer does not imply a specific sexual orientation; they can

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Una mujer se apoya sobre la espalda de un hombre, mientras lo abraza y cierra los ojos. Ambas personas sonríen y están al aire libre al atardecer.

Heterosexual

Heterosexual, straight (Heterosexual) This word is used to describe a person’s sexual orientation. Specifically, it refers to the desire and attraction felt towards someone from the opposite sex. For example, a heterosexual man is attracted to women, while a heterosexual woman is attracted to men. Heterosexuality has been the predominant sexual orientation in numerous societies for many centuries. For that

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Primer plano de una bota que pisa una bandera del arcoiris tirada en el suelo.

Homophobia

Homophobia (Homofobia) This term is used to describe rejection, fear, or discrimination towards lesbian women and gay men. A homophobic action includes any verbal, physical, psychological, or sexual aggression towards people with these sexual orientations. Today, there are still many countries where lesbian women and gay men are persecuted and even sentenced to death because of their sexual orientation. This type of rejection, fear, or

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Una ilustración con decenas de personas que representan diversidad en cuanto a la edad, la corporalidad, las capacidades, el sexo, la identidad de género, el origen étnico, la cultura y la religión, entre otras.

Human diversity

Human diversity (Diversidad humana) Human diversity is the variety of specific personal characteristics that make every person unique and different from others. These distinctive qualities of each person shape the plurality of identities that enrich societies. Some of these characteristics are age, social class, socio-economic status, corporeality, health, capacities and skills, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, nationality, ethnicity, culture, religion,

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Plano medio de una mujer racializada, con el rostro serio y los brazos cruzados en el pecho. De fondo, hay personas fuera de foco que sostienen carteles.

Intersectionality

Intersectionality (Interseccionalidad) The term was coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw, an Afro-American academic, to highlight the way in which gender, race, social class, sexual orientation, and other individual identity characteristics intersect to create a different personal experience regarding systematic oppression. This is a way to understand social relations through the intersection of the different types of discrimination that people face. According

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Ilustración de dos manos que separan el símbolo de mujer y de hombre del lugar donde estaban unidos.

Intersex

Intersex (Intersexual) This refers to a person whose body is outside the sexual binary. Being intersex is not synonymous with having any type of medical issue. Intersexuality occurs naturally and is not related to sexual orientation or gender identity. An intersex person can feel like a man, woman, or neither, and they can feel emotional, sexual, or romantic attraction for people of

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Dos mujeres en la vía pública sonríen mientras se miran. Una cruza el brazo sobre el cuello de la otra y sus frentes y narices se están tocando.

Lesbian

Lesbian (Lesbiana) The term lesbian is very heterogeneous. On the one hand, it is used to refer to women who are emotionally, sexually, and romantically attracted to other women. On the other hand, it is a personal and political identity. For example, some lesbians place their lesbian identity before their identity as women. The word thus becomes a broader concept

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Ilustración de una diversidad de personas agrupadas, como si estuviesen sobre gradas. Varias de ellas sostienen la bandera del arcoíris.

LGBTIQ+

LGBTIQ+  (LGBTIQ+) This acronym refers to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transsexuals, intersex, queer, and all the multiple expressions of sexual diversity, and gender identity and expression (included with the symbol +). The acronym has changed over time because not all expressions and types of diversity are included, which has led to fights for recognition and visibility. Initially, the acronym was LGBT,

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Tres hombres sentados uno al lado del otro al aire libre. Ríen de manera amigable y cómplice. En el fondo, están las hojas de los árboles.

Man

Man (Hombre) The concept of man is a term used in biology to classify humans in relation to their male reproductive system (penis and testicles). It is usually linked to masculinity, which is a gender expression based on cisheteronormativity. Since the ancient social construction, men have been identified with determined gender roles, expression, and identity. If someone’s reproductive system was

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Ilustración de cuatro personas, una al lado de la otra. Unas se abrazan y otras se toman de las manos. Por encima, hay una cinta con los colores del género no binario.

Non-binary person

Non-binary person (Persona no binaria) This refers to people whose gender identity does not correspond to the spectrum of female and male gender binaries. Non-binary people can feel that their gender identity is: androgynous, in between feminine and masculine, neutral or unrecognized, multiple, partial, or culture specific.  Many non-binary people do not use the he or she pronouns because they

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Imagen tomada desde el fondo de un aula. Hay niñas y niños de espaldas, que levantan la mano para responder a lo que pregunta la persona a cargo de la clase, que se ve fuera de foco.

Non-sexist education

Non-sexist education (Educación no sexista) This educational approach promotes gender equality and non-discrimination. It recognizes that gender-based discrimination can be learned and unlearned at school and in other spaces. As such, it promotes an educational environment that equally values women and men. It also avoids imposing roles and social mandates that are traditionally assigned based on a person’s sex, and

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Ilustración de personas que bailan. Algunas lo hacen solas y otras con dos o tres personas.

Pansexual

Pansexual (Pansexual) Pansexuality is a type of sexual orientation where the person feels attracted to all types of genders: feminine, masculine, and non-binary, among others. The origin of the word pansexual is traced back to the beginning of the 20th century. It is linked to pansexualism, which Sigmund Freud used to describe that the majority of human behaviours derive from

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Ilustración de una diversidad de personas, una al lado de la otra, que miran hacia el costado. Tienen estilos de cabello diferentes y prendas de todos los colores.

Queer

Queer  (Queer) Queer is used to describe a sexual orientation or a gender expression or identity outside of the gender binary (man/woman). Queer people express that having a specific sexual orientation or a single gender is not natural or inherent to human nature. Instead, that they are fluid social constructs that can be modified. Originally, queer was used negatively against

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Mujer con anteojos redondos y un turbante en la cabeza con los colores del arcoíris.

Queer theory

Queer theory (Teoría queer) This is a relatively new wave within the feminist and LGBTIQ+ movement; it states that gender is constantly being constructed and evolving. It argues that gender, sexual identity, and sexual orientation are not biological aspects but, as stated by Judith Butler, they are a social construction. Queer theory stands against the norms that establish gender identities

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Trece puños levantados para reflejar la diversidad multiétnica de la sociedad.

Racism

   Racism (Racismo) Racism is the discriminatory belief that a group of people have characteristics that make them superior or inferior compared to others. These characteristics are often physical, including skin colour or facial features. They can also include language or place of birth. Racism also refers to the political ideology or anthropological doctrine founded in that feeling of superiority

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Ilustración de dos piernas gigantes al lado de una mujer minúscula, que llega a la altura de las rodillas.

Sexism

Sexismo  (Sexism) Sexism is a type of discrimination based on people’s biological sex or their gender . It also refers to the prejudice and the stereotypes that women or men encounter as a result of the conditions attributed to each sex. In general, sexism affects women. References: Photo credit: Nadia Snopek Have any questions? MODII can help! Send your query

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Tres iconos de personas que ríen. Una viste con los colores del arcoíris.

Sexual and gender diversity

Sexual and gender diversity (Diversidad sexual y de género) This is a general term that refers to the multiple possibilities that derive from sexual diversity (orientation and intensity), from gender expression and identity, and its combinations. This is an alternative to using the acronym, for example LGBTIQ+, which includes the different types of this diversity. This expression is a response to

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Dos mujeres de espalda, que caminan tomadas de la mano por una acera angosta. De un lado, están las fachadas de los edificios y del otro lado hay autos estacionados.

Sexual dissidence

Sexual dissidence (Disidencia sexual) Sexual dissidence is used in some LAC sectors to name and revindicate the politicization of identities, cultural practices, and social or political movements that question heterosexuality as the hegemonic social norm. This concept stands out because it goes beyond a description of the sexual and gender diversity subpopulations, in order to emphasize the political nature of this

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