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Gender equality

In this reflectary, you will find key terms on feminisms, violence against women, and everyday manifestations of sexism.

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La campana de un estetoscopio entre un condón y un blíster de comprimidos.


Abortion (Aborto) Abortion is the termination of pregnancy after the fertilized egg is implanted in the endometrium and before the foetus can survive outside of the uterus. It can be spontaneous or induced. There are various methods for induced abortion, and it can be safe or unsafe, legal or illegal, complete or incomplete. Spontaneous abortion or miscarriage is the termination

Icono de una persona de pie con un megáfono en la mano.


Advocacy (Incidencia política) This is the set of actions to influence the decisions and behaviors of decision makers. The goal is to position the causes and interests of a specific group of people or citizens. References: Collado, H. (2015). Incidencia política: concepto, importancia y herramientas.    Photo credit: bearsky23 Have any questions? MODII can help! Send your query

Mujer afro en una manifestación junto a otras mujeres. Mira hacia arriba con la boca muy abierta y los ojos cerrados, a la par que sostiene un cartel con los brazos extendidos.


Afrofeminisms ((Afrofeminismos) This is a wave within feminism that asserts or highlights the specific experiences of black women, who have been historically overshadowed by white women within the hegemonic feminism. It underscores that black women’s experiences are affected and determined by the strong connection between sexism, class oppression, and racism. It became popular in the 1960s as a response to

Figuras en miniatura de personas. Tres hombres avanzan por una vía cerrada y una mujer está parada afuera.


Androcentrismo (Androcentrism) This refers to a world view that places men at the centre of everything. This understanding of reality is based on the idea that the masculine view is the universal view. In other words, it is generalized for all humanity and it is considered the only valid and possible one. Androcentrism makes women, their perspective, and their contributions

Dibujo de Virginia Woolf. Tiene el semblante serio y el cabello recogido en un rodete.

Bechdel test

Bechdel test (Test de Bechdel) This test, also known as the Bechdel-Wallace Test, evaluates the gender gap in movies, comics, theatre, etc. También se conoce como Test de Bechdel/Wallace. It was inspired by the comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For , created by the cartoonist Alison Bechdel. In the 1985 comic strip, one of the female characters states that

Un banano, cáscaras de banano y medio pomelo.

Biological sex

  Biological sex (Sexo biológico) Biologically defined sex is determined by a person’s reproductive system and their physiognomy. In other words, based on their genetic, hormonal, anatomic, and physiological characteristics. As such, when a person is born they can be: – Woman: with XX chromosomes and a female reproductive system. – Man: with XY chromosomes and a male reproductive system. – Intersex: with a combination of masculine and



Body-land-territory (Territorio-cuerpo-tierra) The term body-land-territory emerged from women’s fight for freedom from patriarchal and capitalist oppressions. It emphasizes the connection between gender-based violence and the dispossession of territory. Rape, abuse, femicide, and being stripped of land are related in that patriarchy and the destruction of natural elements are all part of the same system of thinking and domination. In fact, the

Una mujer y un hombre aparecen dos veces. La mujer tiene una cinta en la boca y los brazos cruzados. El hombre sonríe y levanta un premio.


Bropiating  (Bropiating) La palabra bropiating proviene del inglés y se puede traducir al español como apropiación machista de ideas. This refers to men appropriating an idea that was originally proposed by a woman, and then taking the credit. Another term to refer to this practice is bropropriation. Photo credit: LightField Studios Have any questions? MODII can help! Send your query

Ilustración de una niña y un niño de pie. Solamente visten pantalones cortos y están mirando qué hay debajo de estos, en la zona de sus genitales.


Cisgender  (Cisgénero) The word cisgender or cis refers to people who identify with the sex or gender they were assigned at birth. The word is used within trans activism in an inclusive way to refer to non-transgender people. Cisgender people do not usually identify themselves as cisgender; this consistency in gender identity is implicit in cis-heteronormativity or cis-homonormativity. The prefix cis etymologically

Dos señales de tránsito redondas. En una de las señales, hay un miembro policial corriendo con un bastón en la mano. En la otra señal, hay una persona corriendo, con el fondo de la bandera arcoíris. Ambas personas corren en la misma dirección, a modo de persecución.


Cisheteronormativity (Cisheteronormatividad) This is the set of ideas, social norms, beliefs, and culture that govern people whose gender identity corresponds to the one assigned at birth, and people who also identify as heterosexual. This type of social construction is considered the only model for sexual-romantic and parental relationships, and it establishes advantages for people who abide by this system. This

Ilustración de hileras de hombres con traje, que cruzan por la senda peatonal. En el centro, hay una mujer con el cabello suelto. Es la única persona que viste con colores.


Cisheteropatriarchy (Cisheteropatriarcado) This is the set of ideas, beliefs, and culture that support the criterion that men are predominant over other genders and other sexual orientations. It also normalizes the nuclear family as the only acceptable family unit. The concept of man in this social construction is identified as heterosexual and cisgender. Any person that is within this concept has a level

Icono de una persona con seis manos alrededor que la apuntan con el dedo índice.

Collective naming-and-shaming

Collective naming-and-shaming (Escrache) This refers to the action of publicly calling out people who committed a crime or injustice.  Often, in cases of sexual violence, it becomes clear that the legal system recognizes that the accused is guilty when the victim is the “perfect victim”. In other words, when she fits the stereotypes established by society regarding women: submissive, caste,

Primer plano de píldoras anticonceptivas, un condón abierto, varios paquetes de condones y un calendario.


Contraception  (Anticoncepción) Contraception refers to the practice, methods, or devices used to prevent pregnancy when having sex. According to Planned Parenthood, ’family planning has always been widely practiced, even in societies dominated by social, political, or religious codes that require people to “be fruitful and multiply”’’ (Planned Parenthood, 2012). The World Health Organization (WHO) and other authorities on the subject use

Variedad de métodos anticonceptivos, como preservativos, píldoras anticonceptivas, dispositivos intrauterinos, anillos vaginales, entre otros.

Contraception methods

   Contraception methods (Métodos anticonceptivos ) Contraceptive methods are devices or procedures used to prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg to avoid pregnancy. There are various reasons for choosing one method over another. This includes physiological and personality traits, each person’s life conditions, the way the person lives their sexuality, and the possibilities of accessing these methods, etc.  For the World

Mujeres que tocan bombos en una marcha por el Día Internacional de la Mujer en Lima, Perú. Llevan camisetas que dicen «Feminismo es sinónimo de igualdad».

Decolonial feminism

Decolonial feminism (Feminismo descolonial) Decolonial feminism is also known as peripheral feminism, third wave, or from the margins. This is a wave of  feminism that emerged in Latin America and that centres on the intersection of the conflicts of sex and gender, class and race, and relates it to the structures imposed by colonialism and neocolonialism. It rejects and questions the

Plano desde arriba de una mujer que está por levantar una barra con pesas. La mujer usa una prótesis en una pierna.

Disabled feminism

Disabled feminism (Discafeminismo) The word in Spanish (discafeminismo) was coined by Cristina González, and its use has spread especially among organizations and groups of women with disabilities. The idea is to highlight the double discrimination that women with disabilities face. According to González, ‘when someone faces various discriminations, these are not added up, instead they multiply and strengthen.’ Women with

Ilustración de una mujer que intenta detener un puño gigante. Al lado de la mujer, un niño pequeño la abraza de la cintura.

Domestic violence

Domestic violence (Violencia doméstica ) This refers to the type of violence that take places in the domestic sphere, regardless of who exercises it or who suffers it (mothers and fathers against children, young people against elders, men against their wives, etc.). However, it is often used to refer to gender-based violence against women in the domestic sphere, since—historically—violence against women

Símbolo de la mujer en verde, con un árbol dentro del círculo.


Ecofeminisms (Ecofeminismos) This is a wave of feminism that emerged in the mid 1970s. It centres on analyzing how the current development model led to the excessive exploitation of the common natural assets and how this affects women especially. Ecofeminisms focus on the connection between the exploitation of nature and women’s oppression, paying special attention to the relationship between nature,

Mujer con los ojos vendados y los puños atados. Tiene la boca abierta, como si estuviera gritando. De fondo, varias mujeres caminan en una marcha y llevan un cartel.


Femicide (Feminicidio, femicidio) Femicide refers to the murder of a woman simply for being a woman. Es más común el uso de feminicidio en algunos países de América Latina, como México o Colombia; y de femicidio en España, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile y Honduras.  The word has been used since the 19th century to refer to the murder of women. Diana

Un grupo de mujeres reunidas en el Día Internacional de la Mujer, en Bogotá, Colombia. Sonríen, cantan, llevan el símbolo de la mujer pintado en las mejillas y usan pañuelos verdes feministas.


Feminism (Feminismo) Feminism is a social and political movement that asserts women’s and men’s equality. To achieve this equality, it advocates for expanding women’s rights and freedoms, especially in the political, social, economic, cultural, and civil spheres. It also demands improved legal and social conditions for women, their emancipation, and changing socio-cultural behaviour patterns that lead to their discrimination. Some